Ingredients 2018-05-26T09:22:24+00:00

ALPHA GPC (50%) 300mg

L-Alpha glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline, also known as Alpha GPC, is a natural choline compound and precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is essential for memory, attention, and preventing cognitive decline.

  • Significantly reduces cognitive impairment for people with degenerative brain diseases, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. [1]
  • Significantly improves cognitive symptoms in memory and attention of more than 1570 patients in thirteen published clinical trials. [2]
  • Alpha GPC provides considerably higher levels of choline than Citicoline. [3]

Bacopa Monnieri (50% Bacosides) 300mg

A medicinal herb traditionally used in Ayurveda, known as Brahmi, used for centuries by ancient Vedic scholars to memorize lengthy hymns and scriptures. This natural herb promotes neuron communication and increases brain blood flow. A long-term cognitive enhancer, it takes at least 2-3 months to feel its full effects. It is known to reduce anxiety and enhance memory.

  • Improves learning and memory recall in healthy adults. [4] [5]
  • Improves memory acquisition and retention in aging, elder individuals. [6] [7] [8]
  • Significant improvement on mental control, logical memory, and paired associate learning at 12 weeks. [9]
  • Improves performance on working memory, especially with spatial and accuracy. [10]
  • Significant effect for the retention of new information and decreases the rate of forgetting newly acquired information. [11]

Rhodiola Rosea (5% Rosavins and 2% Salidrosides) 300mg

An arctic herb grown naturally in the wild, it is used in Scandinavia as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine for physical and cognitive vitality. It combats cognitive decline associated with stress, fatigue, and exhaustion.

  • Highly significant anti-fatigue effects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study. [12]
  • Shown improvements to stress symptoms and functional impairment after three days in a 4 week human study. [13]
  • Significant improvements to mental fatigue of students during a stressful examination period. [14]
  • Reduces fatigue under stressful conditions of healthy physicians during night duty. [15]
  • Robust evidence of use in combating fatigue, with lack of interaction with other drugs and adverse effects. [16]
  • Significantly reduces the symptoms of insomnia, emotional instability, and anxiety over a period of 6 weeks. [17]

L-Theanine 200mg

A non-essential amino acid that’s found naturally in green tea, it raises levels of brain serotonin, dopamine, and GABA. It is shown to reduce stress, promote relaxation, and improve memory & attention. When combined with caffeine*, it boosts mental performance while reducing the jittery effects.

  • Reduces heart rate and causes anti-stress effects. [18]
  • Improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. [19]
  • Pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in healthy adults prone to high anxiety. [20]
  • Increases alpha brainwave while promoting mental relaxation and concentration in young adult males. [21]
  • Combined with caffeine*: Increase in attention task performance. [22]
  • Combined with caffeine*: Improves speed and accuracy of performance of attention-switching task and reduces susceptibility to distracting information in the memory task. [23]
  • Combined with caffeine*: Faster simple reaction time, faster numeric working memory reaction time, and improved sentence verification accuracy. Increase alert ratings; reduces tired ratings. [24]

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine 200mg

A more soluble form of L-Tyrosine with greater absorption and bioavailability, it is an amino acid that metabolizes to produce neurotransmitters dopamine and adrenaline. It reduces stress and fatigue, and useful during extended work and sleep deprivation. It improves cognitive performances under stress and sustains working memory better during multi-tasking.

  • Significantly decreases symptoms, adverse moods, and performance impairment in an acutely stressful environment. [25]
  • Significantly increases cognitive performance during episodes of sustained work with sleep loss. [26]
  • Decreases blood pressure and reduces the effects of stress and fatigue on cognitive task performance in a demanding military combat training course. [27]
  • Significantly enhances accuracy and sustains working memory during multitasking. [28]

Phosphatidylserine (20%) 100mg

An amino acid derivative compound that is found abundantly in the brain and naturally synthesized in the body. It prevents age-related cognitive decline and improves memory functions in the elderly.

  • Significantly increased memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints. [29]
  • Significant improvements in age related cognitive decline at 6 weeks and effect was maintained at 12 weeks. [30]
  • Significant improvements in patients with cognitive impairment with moderate to severe cognitive decline. [31]
  • Improvement on both computerized and standard neuropsychological performance tests in patients meeting criteria for age-associated memory impairment. [32]

B12 (Methylcobalamin) 500mcg

Methylcobalamin is the most bio-available form of vitamin B12 that is most readily absorbed by the body. It remains in the body for a longer period of time and at higher levels, thus superior to cyanocobalamin, and can be consumed at high doses with no toxic effects. It supports normal functioning of the brain and nervous system and deficiency can cause severe and irreversible damage.

  • Over a 5-year period, the decrease in brain volume was greater among the seniors with lower vitamin B12. [33]
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency were associated with poor episodic & semantic memory and perceptual speed as well as decreased brain volume. [34]
  • Neurological dysfunctions were observed in individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency. [35]
  • Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with developmental regression, poor brain growth, and poor intellectual outcome in infants. [36]
“Science makes progress by combining imagination with experimental results—by insisting on evidence.” – Gordon L. Kane

1. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12637119
2. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11589921
3. A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citicoline in normal volunteers. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1428296
4. The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22747190
5. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11498727
6. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590480
7. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18611150
8. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20703343
9. Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer’s Disease. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5448442
10. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683852
11. Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12093601
12. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725561
13. Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms–results of an open-label study. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22228617
14. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839209
15. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue–a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11081987
16. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378318

17. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990195
18. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16930802
19. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21303262
20. Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464611000351
21. Effects of Theanine on the Release of Brain Alpha Wave in Adult Males. https://koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=0124KJN/2003.36.9.918&DT=1
22. L-theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641209
23. The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681988
24. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006208
25. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2736402
26. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7794222
27. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10230711
28. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10548261
29. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103034
30. An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201936
31. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323999
32. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2027477
33. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779510
34. Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: a cross-sectional examination. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21947532
35. Evoked responses in vitamin B12 deficiency. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7224607
36. Long-term neurologic consequences of nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infants. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1432418

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